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Orwell’s press card portrait, 1943.
|Born||Eric Arthur Blair
25 June 1903
Motihari, Bengal Presidency, British India
(present-day East Champaran, Bihar, India)
|Died||21 January 1950 (aged 46)
University College Hospital, London, England
|Resting place||Sutton Courtenay, Oxfordshire, England|
|Pen name||George Orwell|
|Occupation||Novelist and essayist, journalist and literary critic|
|Alma mater||Eton College|
|Genre||Dystopia, roman à clef, satire|
|Subject||Anti-fascism, anti-Stalinism, and democratic socialism, literary criticism, journalism, and polemic|
|Notable works||Animal Farm
Homage to Catalonia
Down and Out in Paris and London
The Road to Wigan Pier
(m. 1936; died 1945)
Sonia Brownell (m. 1949)
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist and essayist, journalist and critic, whose work is characterised by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
As a writer, Orwell produced literary criticism and poetry, fiction and polemical journalism; and is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm (1945) and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). His non-fiction works, including The Road to Wigan Pier (1937), documenting his experience of working-class life in the north of England, and Homage to Catalonia (1938), an account of his experiences soldiering for the Republican faction of the Spanish Civil War(1936–1939), are as critically respected as his essays on politics and literature, language and culture. In 2008, The Timesranked George Orwell second among “The 50 greatest British writers, since 1945”.
Orwell’s work remains influential in popular culture and in political culture, and the adjective “Orwellian” — describing totalitarian and authoritarian social practices — is part of the English language, like many of his neologisms, such as “Big Brother“, “Thought Police“, and “Hate week“, “Room 101“, the “memory hole“, and “Newspeak“, “doublethink” and “proles“, “unperson” and “thoughtcrime“.